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Kaposi sarcoma is a disease in which malignant lesions (cancer) can form in the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions are usually purple and are made of cancer cells, new blood vessels, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is found in the lesions of all patients with Kaposi sarcoma. This virus is also called Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). Most people with HHV-8 do not get Kaposi sarcoma. People with HHV-8 are more likely to develop Kaposi sarcoma if their immune system is weakened by disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or by drugs given after an organ transplant.
There are several types of Kaposi sarcoma. The two types discussed in this summary include:
Tests that examine the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract are used to detect (find) and diagnose Kaposi sarcoma.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
One of the following types of biopsies may be done to check for Kaposi sarcoma lesions in the skin:
An endoscopy or bronchoscopy may be done to check for Kaposi sarcoma lesions in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs.
After Kaposi sarcoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body.
The following tests and procedures may be used to find out if cancer has spread to other parts of the body:
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
Classic Kaposi sarcoma is found most often in older men of Italian or Eastern European Jewish origin.
Classic Kaposi sarcoma is a rare disease that gets worse slowly over many years.
Signs of classic Kaposi sarcoma may include slow-growing lesions on the legs and feet.
Patients may have one or more red, purple, or brown skin lesions on the legs and feet, most often on the ankles or soles of the feet. Over time, lesions may form in other parts of the body, such as the stomach, intestines, or lymph nodes. The lesions usually don't cause any symptoms but may grow in size and number over a period of 10 years or more. Pressure from the lesions may block the flow of lymph and blood in the legs and cause painful swelling. Lesions in the digestive tract may cause gastrointestinal bleeding.
Another cancer may develop.
Some patients with classic Kaposi sarcoma may develop another type of cancer before the Kaposi sarcoma lesions appear or later in life. Most often, this second cancer is non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Frequent follow-up is needed to watch for these second cancers.
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk of developing epidemic Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma).
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by HIV, which attacks and weakens the body's immune system. A weakened immune system is unable to fight infection and disease. People with HIV have an increased risk of infection and cancer.
A person with HIV and certain types of infection or cancer, such as Kaposi sarcoma, is diagnosed as having AIDS. Sometimes, a person is diagnosed with AIDS and epidemic Kaposi sarcoma at the same time.
The use of drug therapy called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces the risk of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma in patients with HIV.
HAART is a combination of several drugs used to lessen the damage to the immune system caused by HIV infection. Treatment with HAART reduces the risk of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma, although it is possible to for a person to develop epidemic Kaposi sarcoma while taking HAART.
For information about AIDS and its treatment, see the AIDSinfo website.
Signs of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma can include lesions that form in many parts of the body.
The signs of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma can include lesions in different parts of the body, including any of the following:
Kaposi sarcoma is sometimes found in the lining of the mouth during a regular dental check-up.
In most patients with epidemic Kaposi sarcoma, the disease will spread to other parts of the body over time.
There are different types of treatment for patients with Kaposi sarcoma.
Different types of treatments are available for patients with Kaposi sarcoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Six types of standard treatment are used to treat Kaposi sarcoma:
Treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma combines treatment for Kaposi sarcoma with treatment for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The six types of standard treatment used to treat Kaposi sarcoma include:
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination of several drugs used to lessen the damage to the immune system caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. For many patients, HAART alone may be enough to treat epidemic Kaposi sarcoma. For other patients, HAART may be combined with other standard treatments to treat epidemic Kaposi sarcoma.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:
The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type of the cancer being treated. Certain types of external radiation therapy are used to treat Kaposi sarcoma lesions. Photon radiation therapy treats lesions with high-energy light. Electron beam radiation therapy uses tiny negatively charged particles called electrons.
The following surgical procedures may be used for Kaposi sarcoma to treat small, surface lesions:
Cryosurgery is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, tissue, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy).
In electrochemotherapy, intravenous chemotherapy is given and a probe is used to send electric pulses to the tumor. The pulses make an opening in the membrane around the tumor cell and allow the chemotherapy to get inside.
The way the chemotherapy is given depends on where the Kaposi sarcoma lesions occur in the body. In Kaposi sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given in the following ways:
Liposomal chemotherapy uses liposomes (very tiny fat particles) to carry anticancer drugs. Liposomal doxorubicin is used to treat Kaposi sarcoma. The liposomes build up in Kaposi sarcoma tissue more than in healthy tissue, and the doxorubicin is released slowly. This increases the effect of the doxorubicin and causes less damage to healthy tissue.
See Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma for more information.
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Interferon alfa and interleukin-12 are biologic agents used to treat Kaposi sarcoma.
New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.
Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are types of targeted therapy being studied in the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. These may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that may be used to treat Kaposi sarcoma.
TKIs block signals needed for tumors to grow. Imatinib mesylate is a TKI that may be used to treat Kaposi sarcoma.
Treatment for Kaposi sarcoma may cause side effects.
For information about side effects caused by treatment for cancer, see our Side Effects page.
Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.
For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.
Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.
Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.
Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about clinical trials supported by NCI can be found on NCI's clinical trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website.
Follow-up tests may be needed.
Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.
Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.
For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.
Classic Kaposi Sarcoma
Treatment for single skin lesions may include the following:
Treatment for skin lesions all over the body may include the following:
Treatment for Kaposi sarcoma that affects lymph nodes or the gastrointestinal tract usually includes chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy.
Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.
Epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma
Treatment for epidemic Kaposi sarcoma may include the following:
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about Kaposi sarcoma, see the following:
For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:
Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.
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Purpose of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.
Reviewers and Updates
Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary ("Updated") is the date of the most recent change.
The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board.
Clinical Trial Information
A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Clinical trials can be found online at NCI's website. For more information, call the Cancer Information Service (CIS), NCI's contact center, at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).
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The best way to cite this PDQ summary is:
PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/soft-tissue-sarcoma/patient/kaposi-treatment-pdq. Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>. [PMID: 26389178]
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Last Revised: 2018-10-04
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